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  1. Improved knowledge on vector-borne pathogens in wildlife will help determine their effect on host species at the population and individual level and whether these are affected by anthropogenic factors such as ...

    Authors: Jürgen Krücken, Gábor Á. Czirják, Sabrina Ramünke, Maria Serocki, Sonja K. Heinrich, Jörg Melzheimer, M. Carolina Costa, Heribert Hofer, Ortwin H. K. Aschenborn, Nancy A. Barker, Stefano Capodanno, Luís Madeira de Carvalho, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Marion L. East and Bettina Wachter

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:328

    Content type: Research

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  2. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides is a key method to reduce vector transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, causing Chagas disease in a large part of South America. However, the successes of IRS in the Gra...

    Authors: Raquel Gonçalves, Rhiannon A. E. Logan, Hanafy M. Ismail, Mark J. I. Paine, Caryn Bern and Orin Courtenay

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:327

    Content type: Research

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  3. Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum. Although usually transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies, infection by vertical transmission and by blood transfusion have also been...

    Authors: Harold Salant, Yaarit Nachum‑Biala, Barbara Feinmesser, Maya Perelmutter and Gad Baneth

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:326

    Content type: Research

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  4. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Carmen Costache, Zsuzsa Kalmár, Horațiu Alexandru Colosi, Alina Mihaela Baciu, Răzvan Vlad Opriş, Adriana Györke and Ioana Alina Colosi

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:325

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Parasites & Vectors 2020 13:387

  5. Echinococcosis is a severe zoonotic parasitic disease which severely affects the health of the hosts. The diagnosis of echinococcosis depends mainly on imaging examination. However, the patient is often in the...

    Authors: Mingxing Zhu, Xiancai Du, Hongxia Xu, Songhao Yang, Chan Wang, Yazhou Zhu, Tingrui Zhang and Wei Zhao

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:324

    Content type: Research

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  6. Histomonosis is a severe re-emerging disease of poultry caused by Histomonas meleagridis, a protozoan parasite which survives in the environment via the cecal worm Heterakis gallinarum. Following infection, the p...

    Authors: Gürbüz Daş, Lukas Wachter, Manuel Stehr, Ivana Bilic, Beatrice Grafl, Patricia Wernsdorf, Cornelia C. Metges, Michael Hess and Dieter Liebhart

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:323

    Content type: Research

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  7. The speed with which acaricides paralyze and kill ticks is relevant to impeding pathogen transmission. The objective of this study was to assess early-onset lotilaner effects on the motility and weights of Amblyo...

    Authors: Martha J. Wenger, Todd M. Kollasch, Madeline C. Burke, Livvy Jones, Casey Locklear, Makaela Hedberg, Lauren Miller, Sydnie Reeves, Debra Ritchie, Anthony J. Rumschlag, William G. Ryan, Vicki Smith, Cameron Sutherland, Kathryn E. Reif and Brian H. Herrin

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:322

    Content type: Research

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  8. Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum and is highly lethal in humans and dogs if left untreated. The frequency of this parasite and associated histological changes in the ...

    Authors: William de Oliveira Kost, Sandro Antonio Pereira, Fabiano Borges Figueiredo, Artur Augusto Velho Mendes Junior, Maria de Fátima Madeira, Luciana de Freitas Campos Miranda, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de Oliveira, Luiz Cláudio Ferreira, Fernanda Nazaré Morgado and Rodrigo Caldas Menezes

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:321

    Content type: Research

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  9. Longitudinal monitoring of outdoor-biting malaria vector populations is becoming increasingly important in understanding the dynamics of residual malaria transmission. However, the human landing catch (HLC), t...

    Authors: Bernard Abong’o, John E. Gimnig, Bradley Longman, Tobias Odongo, Celestine Wekesa, Amos Webwile, Benjamin Oloo, Mercy Nduta, Margaret Muchoki, Diana Omoke, Daniel Wacira, Kevin Opondo, Eric Ochomo, Stephen Munga, Martin J. Donnelly and Richard M. Oxborough

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:320

    Content type: Research

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  10. Theileria annulata is a protozoan parasite that can infect and transform bovine B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. The mechanism of the transformation is still not well understood, and some parasite molec...

    Authors: Zhi Li, Junlong Liu, Quanying Ma, Aihong Liu, Youquan Li, Guiquan Guan, Jianxun Luo and Hong Yin

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:319

    Content type: Research

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  11. Pseudocohnilembus persalinus and Uronema marinum (Ciliophora, Scuticociliatia), as parasitic scuticociliatid ciliates, were isolated from Scophthalmus maximus and Takifugu rubripes, respectively, in our previous ...

    Authors: Yu-Xi Huang, Sen Wang, Yan-Qi Gao, Jie-Hu Chen, Xiu-Li Wang and Rui-Jun Li

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:318

    Content type: Research

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  12. The human flea, Pulex irritans, is widespread globally and has a long association with humans, one of its principal hosts. Its role in plague transmission is still under discussion, although its high prevalence i...

    Authors: Adélaïde Miarinjara, David M. Bland, James R. Belthoff and B. Joseph Hinnebusch

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:317

    Content type: Research

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  13. Dengue fever is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease in Southeast Asia. Insecticides remain the most effective vector control approach for Aedes mosquitoes. Four main classes of insecticides are widely...

    Authors: Soon Jian Gan, Yong Qi Leong, Muhammad Fakrul Hakim bin Barhanuddin, Siew Tung Wong, Shew Fung Wong, Joon Wah Mak and Rohani Binti Ahmad

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:315

    Content type: Review

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  14. The Aedes aegypti mosquito is responsible for the transmission of several medically important arthropod-borne viruses, including multiple serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1, -2, -3, and -4). Competition within the...

    Authors: M. Novelo, M. D. Audsley and E. A. McGraw

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:314

    Content type: Research

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  15. Trypanosomatid genomes are colonized by active and inactive mobile DNA elements, such as LINE, SINE-like, SIDER and DIRE retrotransposons. These elements all share a 77-nucleotide-long sequence at their 5′ end...

    Authors: Francisco Macías, Raquel Afonso-Lehmann, Patricia E. Carreira and M. Carmen Thomas

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:313

    Content type: Research

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  16. Diseases transmitted by invasive Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes are public health issues in the tropics and subtropics. Understanding the ecology of mosquito vectors is essential for the developmen...

    Authors: Carolina Camargo, Catalina Alfonso-Parra, Sebastián Díaz, Diego F. Rincon, Luis Felipe Ramírez-Sánchez, Juliana Agudelo, Luisa M. Barrientos, Sara Villa-Arias and Frank W. Avila

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:312

    Content type: Research

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  17. Mosquito control has the potential to significantly reduce malaria burden on a region, but to influence public health policy must also show cost-effectiveness. Gaps in our knowledge of mosquito population dyna...

    Authors: Aaron L. Morris, Azra Ghani and Neil Ferguson

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:311

    Content type: Research

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  18. The impact of semiannual mass drug administration (MDA) with albendazole (ALB; 400 mg) alone on lymphatic filariasis (LF) and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections was assessed during two trials conducted...

    Authors: Jérémy T. Campillo, Naomi P. Awaca-Uvon, Jean-Paul Tambwe, Godefroy Kuyangisa-Simuna, Johnny Vlaminck, Gary J. Weil, Michel Boussinesq, Cédric B. Chesnais and Sébastien D. S. Pion

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:310

    Content type: Research

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  19. Haemaphysalis longicornis is an obligate hematophagous ectoparasite that transmits a variety of pathogens causing life-threatening diseases in humans and animals. Paramyosin (Pmy) is not only an invertebrate-spec...

    Authors: Pin-Xing Wu, Xue-Jiao Cui, Mi-Xue Cao, Li-Hong Lv, Hong-Meng Dong, Shu-Wen Xiao, Jing-Ze Liu and Yong-Hong Hu

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:309

    Content type: Short report

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  20. Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria stiedae is a widespread and economically significant disease of rabbits. The lack of studies on the life-cycle development and host interactions of E. stiedae at the molecular level ...

    Authors: Yue Xie, Jie Xiao, Xuan Zhou, Xiaobin Gu, Ran He, Jing Xu, Bo Jing, Xuerong Peng and Guangyou Yang

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:308

    Content type: Research

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  21. Metastrongyloid parasites Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis infect wild and domestic canids and are important pathogens in dogs. Recent studies indicate that gastropod intermediate hosts infected with ...

    Authors: William Robbins, Gary Conboy, Spencer Greenwood and Roland Schaper

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:307

    Content type: Research

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  22. Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) can be appropriately managed following international recommendations. However, few studies have assessed the preferred protocols in real-life veterinary practice and whether these a...

    Authors: Marta Monteiro, Sara Prata, Luís Cardoso, Isabel Pereira da Fonseca and Rodolfo Oliveira Leal

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:306

    Content type: Research

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  23. Drugs currently used for controlling onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) are mainly microfilaricidal, with minimal or no effect on the adult worms. For efficient management of these diseases, it is ne...

    Authors: Melanie Abongwa, Moses Samje, Godfred A. Ayimele, Smith B. Babiaka, Christina Bulman, Judy Sakanari, Nick J. Koszewski, Saurabh Verma, Jesse Goff, Fidelis Cho-Ngwa, Richard J. Martin and Alan P. Robertson

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:305

    Content type: Research

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  24. An epitope, Galα1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc-R, termed α-gal, is present in glycoconjugates of New World monkeys (platyrrhines) and other mammals but not in hominoids and Old World monkeys (catarrhines). The difference is...

    Authors: Ranjan Ramasamy

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:303

    Content type: Short report

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  25. Plant-derived cysteine proteinases of the papain family (CPs) attack nematodes by digesting the cuticle, leading to rupture and death of the worm. The nematode cuticle is composed of collagens and cuticlins, b...

    Authors: Victor S. Njom, Tim Winks, Oumu Diallo, Ann Lowe, Jerzy Behnke, Mark J. Dickman, Ian Duce, Iain Johnstone and David J. Buttle

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:302

    Content type: Research

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  26. Toxoplasma gondii infections are common in humans and animals worldwide. Among all intermediate hosts of T. gondii, captive marsupials from Australia and New Zealand are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmos...

    Authors: Jitender P. Dubey, Fernando H. A. Murata, Camila K. Cerqueira-Cézar, Oliver C. H. Kwok, Chunlei Su and Michael E. Grigg

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:301

    Content type: Review

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  27. Culicoides obsoletus (s.l.) is the most abundant Culicoides species in northern Europe and an important vector of bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus. Nevertheless, information on its subadult life stages re...

    Authors: Claudia Van den Eynde, Charlotte Sohier, Severine Matthijs and Nick De Regge

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:300

    Content type: Methodology

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  28. A pivotal randomised, blinded, positive-controlled, multicentre, European field study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a novel combination tablet of lotilaner and milbemycin oxime (Cre...

    Authors: Sophie Forster, Scott Wiseman and Daniel E. Snyder

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:299

    Content type: Research

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  29. The feeding behavior of bloodsucking insects determines the transmission, distribution, host spectrum and evolution of blood parasites in the wild. Conventional wisdom suggests that some vector groups (e.g. bl...

    Authors: Nayden Chakarov, Jesús Veiga, Ignacio Ruiz-Arrondo and Francisco Valera

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:298

    Content type: Research

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  30. Recent studies indicate that the prevalence of non-falciparum malaria, including Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale spp., is increasing, with some complications in infected individuals. The aim of this revi...

    Authors: Joseph Hawadak, Rodrigue Roman Dongang Nana and Vineeta Singh

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:297

    Content type: Review

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  31. Parasites, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protists, helminths, and arthropods, are ubiquitous in the animal kingdom. Consequently, hosts are frequently infected with more than one parasite species simulta...

    Authors: Dávid Herczeg, János Ujszegi, Andrea Kásler, Dóra Holly and Attila Hettyey

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:296

    Content type: Review

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  32. Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a parasitic disease that is caused by Echinococcus granulosus (Eg). The recombinant Echinococcus granulosus antigen P29 (rEg.P29) was shown to confer effective immunity to sheep and ...

    Authors: Chan Wang, Song-Hao Yang, Nan Niu, Jia Tao, Xian-Cai Du, Ji-Hui Yang, Ming-Xing Zhu, Ya-Na Wang and Wei Zhao

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:295

    Content type: Research

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  33. Glossina (tsetse flies) biologically transmit trypanosomes that infect both humans and animals. Knowledge of their distribution patterns is a key element to better understand the transmission dynamics of trypanos...

    Authors: Richard S. Gashururu, Samuel M. Githigia, Methode N. Gasana, Richard Habimana, Ndichu Maingi, Giuliano Cecchi, Massimo Paone, Weining Zhao, Daniel K. Masiga and James Gashumba

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:294

    Content type: Research

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  34. African trypanosomiases are vector-borne diseases that affect humans and livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. Although data have been collected on tsetse fauna as well as trypanosome infections in tsetse flies and...

    Authors: Djoukzoumka Signaboubo, Vincent Khan Payne, Ibrahim Mahamat Alhadj Moussa, Hassane Mahamat Hassane, Petra Berger, Soerge Kelm and Gustave Simo

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:293

    Content type: Research

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  35. Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) associated to ticks are among the most important health issues affecting dogs. In Italy, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia conorii and Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.) ha...

    Authors: Jairo Alfonso Mendoza-Roldan, Giovanni Benelli, Marcos Antonio Bezerra-Santos, Viet-Linh Nguyen, Giuseppe Conte, Roberta Iatta, Tommaso Furlanello and Domenico Otranto

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:292

    Content type: Research

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  36. Sand flies are principal vectors of the protozoan parasites Leishmania spp. and are widely distributed in all warmer regions of the world, including the Mediterranean parts of Europe. In Central European countrie...

    Authors: Edwin Kniha, Markus Milchram, Vít Dvořák, Petr Halada, Adelheid G. Obwaller, Wolfgang Poeppl, Gerhard Mooseder, Petr Volf and Julia Walochnik

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:291

    Content type: Research

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  37. The 2018 Asia Pacific Malaria Elimination Network’s Vector Control Working Group (APMEN VCWG) annual meeting took place 3–5 September 2018 in Bangkok, Thailand. It was designed to be a forum for entomology and...

    Authors: Latifeh Dahmash, Allison Tatarsky, Fe Esperanza Espino, Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap, Michael B. Macdonald, Jettsumon Sattabongkot Prachumsri, Pradeep Srivastava, Christina Rundi and Jeffrey Hii

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:290

    Content type: Meeting report

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  38. Various tick-borne infections like borreliosis and rickettsiosis pose a health risk to humans in many parts of the world. We investigated seroprevalence of and seroconversion to Borrelia burgdorferi and Rickettsi...

    Authors: Bo Bødker Jensen, Mie Topholm Bruun, Per Moestrup Jensen, Andreas Kristian Pedersen, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Sigurdur Skarphedinsson and Ming Chen

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:289

    Content type: Research

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  39. The combination of milbemycin oxime (MO) and lotilaner (Credelio® Plus) is a novel systemic endectocide that provides month-long effectiveness in dogs after a single oral treatment. The safety of Credelio® Plus f...

    Authors: Kari L. Riggs and Scott Wiseman

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:285

    Content type: Research

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  40. Dirofilaria immitis, a globally distributed filarial parasite of dogs, is known to cause serious or fatal cardiopulmonary disease. Client-owned dogs were enrolled in a clinical field study in the USA to evaluate ...

    Authors: Lisa M. Young, Scott Wiseman, Elizabeth Crawley, Kim Wallace and Daniel E. Snyder

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:284

    Content type: Research

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  41. Reunion Island regularly faces outbreaks of bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic diseases, two insect-borne orbiviral diseases of ruminants. Hematophagous midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)...

    Authors: Yannick Grimaud, Annelise Tran, Samuel Benkimoun, Floriane Boucher, Olivier Esnault, Catherine Cêtre-Sossah, Eric Cardinale, Claire Garros and Hélène Guis

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:288

    Content type: Research

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  42. Hard ticks act as arthropod vectors in the transmission of human and animal pathogens and are widely distributed in northern China. The aim of this study is to screen the important tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) ...

    Authors: Jun Jiao, Zhiyu Lu, Yonghui Yu, Yangxuan Ou, Mengjiao Fu, Yuee Zhao, Nier Wu, Mingliang Zhao, Yan Liu, Yi Sun, Bohai Wen, Dongsheng Zhou, Qinghong Yuan and Xiaolu Xiong

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:287

    Content type: Research

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  43. The proliferative stage (tachyzoite) of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is critical for its transmission and pathogenesis, and a proto-oncogene eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF-5A) plays an important r...

    Authors: Xinchao Liu, Chunjing Li, Xiaoyu Li, Muhammad Ehsan, Mingmin Lu, Ke Li, Lixin Xu, Ruofeng Yan, Xiaokai Song and XiangRui Li

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:283

    Content type: Research

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  44. Trichinellosis is a foodborne disease caused by several Trichinella species around the world. In Chile, the domestic cycle was fairly well-studied in previous decades, but has been neglected in recent years. The ...

    Authors: Carlos Landaeta-Aqueveque, Salvador Ayala, Denis Poblete-Toledo and Mauricio Canals

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:282

    Content type: Short report

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  45. Traditional malaria vector sampling techniques bias collections towards female mosquitoes. Comprehensive understanding of vector dynamics requires balanced vector sampling of both males and females. Male mosqu...

    Authors: Krystal Birungi, Danspaid P. Mabuka, Victor Balyesima, Annet Namukwaya, Elinor W. Chemoges, Sylvia Kiwuwa-Muyingo, C. Matilda Collins, Frederic Tripet and Jonathan K. Kayondo

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:281

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  46. Malaria mixed infections are often unrecognized by microscopists in the hospitals, and a delay or failure to treat Plasmodium-mixed infection may lead to aggravated morbidity and increased mortality. The present ...

    Authors: Aongart Mahittikorn, Frederick Ramirez Masangkay, Kwuntida Uthaisar Kotepui, Giovanni De Jesus Milanez and Manas Kotepui

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:280

    Content type: Research

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  47. Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation plays a pivotal role in hepatic inflammation and liver fibrosis. TLR4 pathway activation has been reported to be involved in mice liver fibrosis induced by hepatitis viru...

    Authors: Lan Chen, Xiaofang Ji, Manni Wang, Xiaoyan Liao, Cuiying Liang, Juanjuan Tang, Zhencheng Wen, Ferrandon Dominique and Zi Li

    Citation: Parasites & Vectors 2021 14:279

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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