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Correction: Hepatozoon (Eucoccidiorida: Hepatozoidae) in wild mammals of the Americas: a systematic review

The Original Article was published on 06 March 2024

Correction: Parasites & Vectors (2024) 17:108

Following publication of the original article [1], a number of inaccuracies came to the attention of the authors. The original description of the Hepatozoon genus had been attributed to Balfour, 1905, whereas the correct ascription is to Miller, 1908, who established the Hepatozoon genus [2]. Balfour described the type species, Hepatozoon muris (syn. Leucocytozoon muris Balfour, 1905; Hepatozoon perniciosum Miller, 1908), which latter passed to Hepatozoon genus after the reorganization of hemogregarines by Wenyon in 1926 [3].

In addition, throughout the text as well as in Fig. 5, Fig. 6, and Supplementary Tables S1 and S4, the Pampa’s fox (Lycalopex gymoncercus) was mentioned to have distribution in Chile and southern Argentina, but this is not correct: the species corresponds to the South American grey fox (Lycalopex grisea) [4]. Moreover, the sequence MZ230033 in Fig. 5 should be associated with Uruguay, not Chile, as it previously was.

These amendments to the published article alter the values of Hepatozoon infection in American canids throughout the review and also imply that preys such as snakes can vehicle Hepatozoon spp. to infect South American grey foxes [5,6,7]. Following these amendments, the total number of species of mammals that have tested positive for Hepatozoon infection has been updated to 107, and the infection statistics among these species, including those at risk of extinction and their conservation statuses, has been updated. The original article has been updated to amend these errors.


  1. Thomas R, Santodomingo A, Saboya-Acosta L, Quintero-Galvis JF, Moreno L, Uribe JE, et al. Hepatozoon (Eucoccidiorida: Hepatozoidae) in wild mammals of the Americas: a systematic review. Parasit Vectors. 2024;17:108.

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  2. Miller WW. Hepatozoon perniciosum a haemogregarine pathogenic for white rats; with a description of the sexual cycle in the intermediate host, a mite (Lelaps echidninus) 46. Washington: Government Printing Office; 1908.

  3. Wenyon CM. Protozoology: A manual for medical men, veterinarians and zoologists, volume II. New York: William Wood and Company; 1926.

  4. Pizarro EJ, Julio-Kalajžić B, Sallaberry-Pincheira N, Muñoz V, González-Acuña D, Cabello J, et al. Species delimitation and intraspecific diversification in recently diverged South American foxes. Mamm Res. 2024;69:71–87.

  5. Muñoz-Pedreros A, Yáñez J, Norambuena HV, Zúñiga A. Diet, dietary selectivity and density of South American grey fox, Lycalopex griseus, in Central Chile. Integr Zool. 2018;13:46–57.

  6. Zúñiga AH, Rau JR, Sandoval R, Fuenzalida V. Landscape use and food habits of the chilla fox (Lycalopex griseus, Gray) and domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) in a peri-urban environment of south-central Chile. Folia Oecol. 2022;49:2.

  7. Smith TG. The genus Hepatozoon (Apicomplexa: Adelina). J Parasitol. 1996;82:565–85.

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Correspondence to Sebastián Muñoz-Leal.

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Thomas, R., Santodomingo, A., Saboya-Acosta, L. et al. Correction: Hepatozoon (Eucoccidiorida: Hepatozoidae) in wild mammals of the Americas: a systematic review. Parasites Vectors 17, 226 (2024).

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